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Eddy Current Microscopy
A sensitive scanning force microscope based technique for measuring local variations in resistivity by monitoring changes in the eddy current induced damping of a cantilever with a magnetic tip oscillating above a conducting sample.
Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 383 (2001).
detects inelastic interactions of beam electrons with the atomic electrons of the probed sample volume
Electrostatic Force Microscopy
EFM is based on the dual pass scheme. The grounded tip first acquires the surface topography using standard intermittent contact atomic force microscopy (IC-AFM). Electrostatic data are collected above the surface. In EFM, the cantilever is driven mechanically and the electro-static force F between the dc biased conductive tip and the surface results in a change of the cantilever resonant frequency that is proportional to the force gradient
Dw=(wo/2k) (dF(z)/dz)where k is the spring constant and w o is the resonant frequency of the cantilever. Resonance is maintained by adjusting the driving frequency w p and the frequency shift Dw= wp- wo is collected as the EFM image.
Phys. Rev. B 63, 125411 (2001). Electric Force Microscopy
An a.c.voltage, U,
of radian frequency, w, is present between the electrically conductive tip of the microscope and the electrode at the back of the sample. Both electrostatic forces (so-colled "Maxwell stress ") and electromechanically induced forces act on the tip. An oscillating electric field causes thickness vibrations of the sample due to electrome-chanical effects (inverse piezoelectric effect and electrostriction).
Surf. Sci. 415, 178 (1998).
Electrostatic Force Modulation Microscopy
Method and apparatus for measuring mechanical and electrical characteristics of a surface using which operates in contact mode.
US Pat. 6185991
Error signal mode produces an image that approximates the derivative of C-AFM topographic images, yielding high image contrast and enhancing surface and sub-surface details.