alternating aperture phase-shifting masks


in statistical process control, the compliance of the measured or observed value to the true value or accepted reference value [EIA 557]

accuracy of measurement closeness of agreement between a quantity value obtained by measurement and the true value of the measurand


  1. Accuracy cannot be expressed as a numerical value.
  2. Accuracy is inversely related to both systematic error and random error.
  3. The term ‘accuracy of measurement’ should not be used for trueness of measurement and the term ‘measurement precision’ should not be used for “accuracy of measurement”. (VIM)

accuracy of a measuring system ability of a measuring system to provide a quantity value close to the true value of a measurand


  1. Accuracy is greater when the quantity value is closer to the true value.
  2. The term ‘precision’ should not be used for “accuracy”.
  3. This concept is related to accuracy of measurement. (VIM)


ac-Electrostatic Force Microscope
In ac-EFM the cantilever is made to oscillate by an ac potential that is applied to the sample at the resonant frequency of the cantilever. This produces an ac force on the cantilever proportional to the local ac potential Vs(w) beneath the tip. The resulting oscillation amplitude is recorded using an external lock-in amplifier; the signal is proportional to Vs(w) .
Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6082 (2000).

Acoustic microscope

Atomic force microscope enabling one to image the topography of a sample, and to monitor simultaneously ultrasonic surface vibrations in the MHz range. For detection of the distribution of the ultrasonic vibration amplitude, a part of the position-sensing light beam reflected from the cantilever is directed to an external knife-edge detector.
Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1493 (1994)

Aerial Image

An image of a mask pattern that is projected onto the wafer by an optical system.


Auger Electron Spectroscopy
the energy analysis of Auger electrons produced when an excited atom relaxes by a radiationless process after ionization by a high-energy electron, ion, or X-ray beam


Atomic Force Microscope
AFM is type of Scanning Probe Microscope (or Scanning Proximity Microscope) with a microscopic force sensor as a probe. By scanning the AFM force sensor (commonly flexible cantilever with the tip on the end) over a sample surface (or scanning a sample under the cantilever) and recording the deflection of the cantilever, one can measure the local height, chemical and mechanical properties of a sample.
Phys.Rev.Lett.56, 930 (1986).


Study of force vs. distance curves for every point aliong a scan.


Automatic gain control


Amplitude HFM (Heterodyne Force Microscopy)


aerial-image metrology system


Attractive-mode force microscope.
Mode of operation of a quartz tuning-fork-based dynamic mode atomic force microscope for the imaging of biological samples under ambient conditions. AMFM uses a stiff cantilever that maintains stable oscillations at low amplitudes even in the presence of capillary and other long range forces that can overwhelm more flexible cantilevers.
Rev. Sci. Instr. 72, 4261 (2001).


Atmospheric Metrology Platform


apertureless NFOM
This technique is based on measuring the modulation of the scattered electric field from the end of a sharp silicon tip as it is stabilized and scanned in close proximity to a sample surface. The demonstrated resolution lies in the 3 nm range—comparable to what can be achieved with typical attractive mode atomic force microscopes.
Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).


advanced process control


angle resolved scattering


Attractive Regime Tapping-Mode AFM
Phys. Rev B 60, 4961 (1999).


angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy


Amplitude Slope Detection
Measuring a force derivative by deriving a shift in the cantilever resonance frequency from a change in the cantilever vibration amplitude driven at constant frequency.
J. Appl. Phys. 61, (1987) 4723.


applicationspecific integrated circuits


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