Contact AFM
In contact AFM modes of operation scanning probe tip touches with the investigated sample surface. During scanning the probe or sample can be vibrated with frequencies below resonance, in resonance (including overtones) and above resonance. Contact AFM includes several d.c.and a.c. modes: constant-height mode, constant-force mode, force modulation mode, scanning microdeformation microscopy, resonance contact scanning force microscopy, ultrasonic force microscopy (sample-induced and waveguide), heterodyne force microscopy, and so on.

Conducting AFM
Contact mode of AFM operation with conductive tip. The tip-surface current is measured during scanning.


Combined AFM/STM
Appl Phys A 66 7, S49 (1998).


Constant-amplitude mode of non-contact AFM.
In constant-amplitude mode the tip is oscillating with a constant amplitude A of typically 1–10 nm at the eigenfrequency f of the cantilever, which may shift by Df due to forces between tip and sample. The oscillation amplitude is kept constant by a regulation circuit that excites a piezoactuator with a sinusoidal voltage of the oscillation frequency f and an amplitude Vexc . The actuator shakes the fixed end of the cantilever. When the cantilever oscillation is damped due to the tip-sample interaction, Vexc will increase to maintain the oscillation amplitude constant. By recording Df and Vexc simultaneously, forces and dissipation can be measured.
Phys. Rev. B 62, 13674 (2000); Phys. Rev. B 61, 11151 (2000).


part of SFM probe.

Cantilever vibration mode

An atomic force microscope (AFM) combined with ultrasonic frequency vibration of a cantilever excited at its support. This method enables both topography and elasticity imaging of stiff samples such as metals and ceramics, without a need for bonding a transducer to the sample.
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(1996) 3787.


calorimetric analysis with scanning microscopy
Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 4268 (1996).


Constant change capacitance mode
J. Vac. Sci. Techn. B 16, 344 (1998).


Calibration Curve Method or Conversion Curve Method
The calibration or conversion curve method (CCM) refers to using a database of calculations of the capacitance done for a matrix set of model parameters, such as oxide thickness, uniform dopant density, etc., as one method for interpreting Scanning Capacitance Microscope (SCM) measurements. The method was originally intended to help analyze SCM data for slowly varying dopant profiles, where the condition of quasi charge neutrality could be suitably maintained during SCM measurement.
J. Vac. Sci. Techn. B 18, 414 (2000).


Critical Dimension
The size of the feature printed in the resist.


Constant amplitude Dynamic Indentation Mode
A modified DM-mode with usage an additional feedback loop which keeps constant the amplitude of dynamic indentation.
Composites A 29A (1998), 1251.


Critical dimension re-entrant probe tip


Constant-excitation mode
Applied Physics A 66, № 7, S295 (1998).


Cemical Force Microscopy
J. Vac. Sci. Techn. B 18, 414 (2000).
Contact Force Microscopy, see Contact AFM


Current Induced Local Oxidation


Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy
J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2115 (1996).




chemical mechanical planarization
химико-механическая планаризация, ХМП


Carbon Nanotube


Combined Dynamic x Mode
In CODYMode SFM at least two oscillations with sufficiently different frequencies and amplitudes are superimposed and interact with the sample surface. This enables the concurrent measurement of the topography, adhesive and frictional forces beside further mechanical surface properties of the sample.
Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 150 (2001).

Constant-current mode for STM

In constant-current mode the feedback keeps the tip-surface current constant, and one deteckts the variations of the local height of the tip accordingly to the sample surface. In this mode one can measure irregular surfaces with high precision.

Constant-force mode for AFM

In constant-force mode the feedback keeps the force betveen the cantilever and sample surface (cantilever bending) constant.

Constant-height mode for SPM

Constant-height mode is faster than constant-current or constant-force modes since the feedback mechanism is turned off (or is used with very low gain parameters).

Contact mode

See contact AFM


cost of ownership
the total lifetime cost associated with acquisition, installation, and operation of fabrication equipment


Crystal-Originated Pit


Conducting probe AFM
J. Vac. Sci. Techn. B 18, 632 (2000).


Contact potential difference


Cristalline Si


Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy


Conductive SPM, see also Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP), Spreading Resistance Microscopy (SRM) Simultaneous topography and current images obtaining in the contact mode by conductive AFM, with bias applied between the probe and the sample; hence the current reflects the nanostructural local conductivity of the sample.
Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3728 (2000).


Constant-vibration mode
Applied Physics A 66, № 7, S295 (1998).